The Golem (1920, dir. Carl Boese & Paul Wegener)
In the film, a rabbi creates a Golem, a clay figure brought to life by magic, to defend the Jews of 16th-century Prague from anti-Semitic attacks. But when the Golem is misused for an act of personal revenge, he transforms into a raging monster who turns on his creators and, in the scene pictured above, sets fire to the Jewish ghetto.
Full film online here.